Future AP English III Students:
I look forward to seeing you in the fall in my AP English Language & Composition class. I have had many of you in Pre-AP English 1, and I am confident in the skills you have learned in Pre-AP classes; however, I must emphasize that the AP Language class is a rigorous, college-level course that emphasizes reading, language, and rhetorical appeals used in a variety of non-fiction texts, including several novels. The focus of this class is a sharp contrast from most of the literature classes you have taken in the past, but you do have the opportunity to earn college credit by scoring a 3 or above on the AP Language test in the spring. The curriculum has been approved by College Board, the organization that releases the AP exams. I will periodically check my email to answer any questions you may have during the summer. Enjoy your break, but do not wait until the end to begin your project.
Novel: Outliers, the Story of Success, by Malcolm Gladwell
Outliers: The Story of Success is a nonfiction work. Malcolm Gladwell is the forerunner of creating this genre that some book reviewers now refer to as “Gladwellian.” Outliers is a form of commentary that examines social systems and cultural values and reveals how they impact a person’s success. Gladwell offers recommendations using rhetorical devices to convince readers to accept his conclusions and analysis of systems and success itself. Often he proposes changes to the systems in place. Because he makes such recommendations and uses rhetorical strategies to convince his readers to accept his arguments, Outliers is often regarded as a piece of persuasive writing.
As you read each chapter, annotate the book looking for the following rhetorical devices. Find several examples of each term listed below and create a dialectical journal that provides direct examples of either rhetorical appeals or logical fallacies. You can either use a composition book or turn them into Google Classroom on the FIRST DAY OF CLASS. If you turn them into Google Classroom, be sure to use a table to separate text from commentary. I expect quoted text, page number on the left side, and the rhetorical device and commentary on the right side of your page. Make sure you use examples from EACH chapter within the book. I require 30 annotations for this book. Use the following terms for your annotations.
Rhetorical appeals and writing styles :
Logos: (appeals to logic)
Pathos: (emotional appeals)
Ethos: (appeals that highlight his or someone else’s credibility) Purpose: Why is the author covering this subject?
Tone (How does the author feel about the subject?
Parallel Structure for a purpose
Repetition for a purpose
Effective, purposeful imagery
* Some of his text will also contain some logical fallacies. Be on the lookout for them and include them in your annotations:
A logical fallacy is an error in reasoning, namely an argument in which the premises do not provide adequate support for the conclusion.
• Appeal to Novelty is the assumption that if something is new, it is good or correct.
• Cum Hoc is the assumption that because two events occurred together, they must be causally related, ignoring that fact that correlation is possible without causation.
• Hasty Generalization occurs when a conclusion is based on too few observed examples. • Misleading Vividness occurs when a few dramatic examples are used to outweigh a significant amount of statistical evidence.
• Post Hoc is the assumption that if one event occurred after another, it must have occurred as a result of the first event.
• Straw Man is an argument that fabricates, misrepresents, or otherwise distorts a position, refutes this weaker, misrepresented position, and concludes that the original position has been refuted.
(from Prestwick House teaching unit)